- ‘The best book about hypnosis that I ever read’ – Dr. Sonja de Graaf, MD
- ‘This is well written and very informative’ – Gerald Kein – International trainer hypnosis and hypnotherapy
- ‘I have read millions of words on hypnosis. It isn’t easy to find something new and valuable to read (or write) about hypnosis.Readers will hit the jackpot here.’ – Ralph Benko, international columnist. See review on Amazon.
There are many, many books on Hypnosis out there – and some of them even have accurate information.
This book by Ina Oostrom, Simona Linskens and Vijay Sharma stands out as one of the most important books in recent years that correctly explains the World of Hypnosis and Hypnotherapy (where Hypnosis is used to produce positive change – physically, mentally or spiritually)
It covers a vast range of topics that effect or are affected by hypnosis – quantum physics, the theory of the mind, belief systems, energy fields, DNA factors, societal belief systems to name a sprinkling. The book also has an excellent overview of the history of modern hypnosis. Most importantly the authors set out to correct the imbalance (in literature, though perhaps not in practice) between the Ericsonian type of Hypnosis and the Hypnosis Techniques of David Elman. Both huge figures in the creation of modern hypnosis techniques, but as the authors point out, for some reason Dave Elman is pretty much absent in the literature of modern hypnosis, which is strange given that his methods and procedures are widely used by modern hypnotherapists.
This book seeks, among other things, to correct that imbalance with its explanations and descriptions of the many fields of hypnosis in current use that have come from the concepts of Dave Elman.
However the biggest reason to read this book is that it has its facts straight regarding the concepts, methods and modern worlds of hypnosis, no matter what type or ‘brand’, and it is clear and direct in its explanations.
For anyone seeking an understanding of Hypnosis, Modern Hypnosis and Hypnotherapy, or for those of us who would like a straightforward, and truthful account of Modern Hypnosis and Hypnotherapy – this is the book to read. I cannot recommend it highly enough.
Ines Simpson, Award winning hypnotherapist and Certified Instructor of Hypnosis
Hypnosis, The Key to Self-Empowerment is an outstanding, comprehensive work that explains everything a non-hypnotist needs to know about the subject.
If you want to understand hypnosis, how it works, and what hypnosis can do to improve your mental and physical well-being, you need to read this book!
Sean Michael Andrews, Award winning hypnotist, Master Practitioner of Neuro-Linguistic Programming and Certified Life Coach
This is one of the most comprehensive books on hypnosis I ever read – and I read a lot of them. The authors do not only dig into the single hypnosis techniques but they also give the big picture on how and why hypnosis works. Even if you didn’t know about hypnosis so far, after reading this book you will understand the power of hypnosis and how it can help with a lot of mental and medical problems, how it helps children overcome their issues and a it discusses many other applications.
The authors describe the subject with many metaphors taken from daily life. So you can understand very easily how your subconscious mind affects your thoughts, emotions and body functions.
Numerous case studies nail down what the authors depict in their book. They show that the hypnotic state is not supernatural or manipulative but a natural state everyone experiences every day without knowing it.
This book is dedicated to one of the most underestimated hypnotists and founder of modern hypnosis, Dave Elman, and to Gerald Kein who enhanced Dave Elmans techniques in the last decades. Both deserve to be more recognized because their hypnosis methods and techniques are unique and helped thousands of people worldwide.
I met one of the authors, Ina Oostrom, several times. She is not only one of the most intelligent persons I know but she also has a big heart. She contributes tremendously to today’s hypnosis world. I fully recommend her as a hypnotherapist and OMNI hypnosis instructor.
This book is a must read for you if you are interested in finding a natural, effective and efficient way to overcome your problems, if you want to get profound and science-based information about hypnosis, and if you want to expand your existing knowledge about hypnosis.
Sandra Blabl, Hypnotherapist, OMNI Hypnosis Instructor, HypnoSlim® Instructor, Author http://omnihypnoseausbildung.de
It’s an honor to review a book that represents the totality of hypnosis, one of the most powerful tools available to mankind. Hypnosis is the portal to what is really happening inside and around us and can unlock the many secrets of our subconscious mind and even our souls.
When I was 20 years old I experienced firsthand a NDA (Near Death Experience), I was in a severe car accident and went into a coma and my body landed in Intensive Care while I was having a grand experience in another world that I can only describe as incredible peaceful and comforting. It felt like being home and there was no desire to go back to my life as a medical student preparing to become a surgeon, which was my lifelong dream. This dream world was fascinating and addictive. At a certain moment I was approached by a few beings who looked like the wizards out of a Hollywood movie and I was gently but firmly summoned to go back to complete my mission. There was no place for discussion and a moment later I was in my paralyzed body wondering if it was a dream or real. My dream of becoming a surgeon was destroyed because of the after effects of the blunt trauma. That is how I became interested in alternative fields of medicine and became an acupuncturist and a few years later also a hypnotist. The reason was that I was searching for answers that science could not give me. In hypnosis I found the answers about life, why we are here, where we come from and much more. In hypnosis we enter through a portal that can bring us to past experiences, future visions and discover the true reasons of why things are happening to us. Once we go through the portal of hypnosis into ‘all there is’ there are many doors we can enter like the memory bank of this life and find out things we have forgotten and also the causes why we feel and react certain ways, we can communicate with our soul, with our higher consciousness, with our body’s intelligence and even with other intelligences that we did not know existed.
This book: Hypnosis, the key to self-empowerment is one of the first books that really gives us a glimpse in the infinite possibilities hypnosis has to offer. Hypnosis will unlock our potential in ways that even many hypnotists have no idea about. My wife Joy has unlocked through hypnosis a doorway to be in contact with her guides, her higher consciousness, her soul and the vast wealth of information of the past, future and other dimensions and has become my go-to Oracle whenever I have an important question. You can discover how this is possible with this book and I recommend it to anyone who is interested in the mystery of being human and want to find out more about ourselves.
I hope this book will land in many hands of those seeking to know more!
With respect and complimenting the authors on an incredible well crafted, easy to read book!
Roy Martina, holistic M.D., bestselling author Emotional Balance
Research published in the Lancet
shows that: Paracetamol with low back pain is not better than a placebo and does not contribute to reducing pain, improving sleep or the quality of live. Still many physicians prescribe paracetamol for reducing pain in the lower back.
From the view of hypnotherapy a person has a great influence on the feeling of pain. The subconscious mind can be used to reduce or eliminate pain using self hypnosis. Self hypnosis can be learned in one session and is effective in reducing stress and very helpful in reducing or eliminating pain. That hypnosis works for pain reduction is demonstrated by the fact that it is used for anesthesia by local hospitals in England, Germany, Switzerland, Belgium and Italy.
It is so easy to say: “It is all in your head.” And that is what you have to live with when you have an inexplicable pain because of something like fybromyalgia. Aggravated by the fact that there seems to be some kind of blame from bystanders: “It is all in your head, so do something about it.” It is not that easy though. When someone is having severe pain complaints he or she would solve it immediately if it was easy doing so using the normal consciousness.
Why something hurts or why it does not hurt is very complex. We do not have a pain center in our head. Actually we have 9 parts in our brain that are involved in the decision making proces to decide if a pain signal must be sent to the area that is damaged or sensitive. Not only the severity of the damage is a factor in this decision making proces of our brain, also other experiences, our own thoughts and factors from our environment. The proces of ‘feeling’ pain and why one person seems to be more bothered is explained very well in the book Explain Pain by David Buttler and Lorimer Moseley.
A recent study from the University of Manchester suggests that talk therapies could be useful for people with chronic pain caused by fybromyalgia or arthritis. Pain seems to be depending on how the brain translates the signals coming from the diseased body parts. European Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 39, Issue 4, Pages 663-672, February 2014
Research seems to confirm what we already know from our hypnosis office: hypnosis can be of great importance to people with chronic pain. Why hypnosis is such an amazing tool to use for pain relieve is explained through research by universities such as Harvard, Yale and Standford. When suggestions are given during a hypnosis session, these suggestions are capable to pass the cortex – which is the part of our brain that takes care of our logical reasoning – and go directly to the limbic endocrine system – the part that occupies itself with fear, memory and stress. The limbic system processes signals from the cortex, however, it can also process orders that come in through external sources such as suggestions given through hypnosis, according to Ron Eslinger.
He says furthermore: “Chronic pain is that pain that has lasted for over six months and by medical standards has no purpose. Phantom limb pain, fibromyalgia, headaches, and back pain can fall into this category. Because cells actually have their own consciousness and respond to messages sent to them by the Limbic system hormones (neuro-chemical transmitters), these cells can recreate their base line feelings of comfort which changes how we physically feel through thoughts and hypnotic suggestions. There is evidence (empirical data) suggesting these cells, when given directions by the Limbic system to decrease cortisol, respond favorably. Cortisol is the stress hormone when received in small amounts protects, however in large amounts over time it can cause arthritis and other chronic pain syndromes. The beauty of hypnosis is that it decreases cortisol levels.”
The fact that we feel pain with our head gives us the opportunity to do something about it using methods that are able to pass the normal consciousness to make use of the subconscious in order to pass the cortex and give acceptable suggestions to the limbic system using hypnosis. The most dramatic way in which we can do so is by operating without any chemical anesthesia, which is done now in several hospitals in the UK, Belgium, Germany, Switzerland and Italy.
Click here for a demo video on pain management (You can activate english subtitles)
Braid and what is in a name? If you think that Braid coined the term hypnosis, read this and rethink!
Names for hypnotherapy and its precursors.
Hypnotherapy is more than just hypnosis. It is a therapeutic technique combined with hypnosis. This in itself is not new. There are more examples in history of hypnosis where a certain treatment was combined with trance. Therefore the therapists thought it would be better to come up with a separate name. Also the trends induction itself was labelled differently over time. Often this had a political background. During the French time the Dutch who appalled the French occupier, used the German term ‘ animalisch magnetismus’ and nowadays show hypnotists in Belgium who want to stay out of problems because of the hypnosis law in their country, call themselves ‘ illusionist’.
Lonely women, girls and effeminate men
A. Fokke Simonsz (1755-1822)
According to Arend Fokke Simonsz (1814) to manipulate is an artificial word derived from magnetisers. According to him it means to touch and stroke with the hand in order to induce a magnetic sleep by moving across the limbs of the patient. He is supported by a Professor from Leyden, F.J. Voltelen who in 1791 held a fierce speech against animal magnetism that became popular at that time in the Netherlands. According to him especially lonely women, girls and effeminate man were threatened by this and he terms the physical touch on the abdomen, legs and groin with the word manipulation. He adds that next to this physical touch of the body imagination also plays a role in relation to animal magnetism.
In the course of time the expression manipulate gets a very negative tone: a manipulator is someone who uses artificial means in order to get someone else to do something. Apart from the question if there was a cause for these allegations, many scientists for diverse reason and with alternating success tried to change the name of something that started to be called animal magnetism (Franz Anton Mesmer 1734-1815). Some people denied the existence of the fluid as was proposed by Mesmer. Others continued based on the work of Mesmer and invented new variations and treatments. Next to that there were physicians who treated their patients with magnetism however they did not want to be associated with quackery and people who got more and more skilled making use of magnetism. During the time of F.J. Voltelen (1791) we can notice that animal magnetism and the artificial ‘ induced sleep’ gets separated.
Braidism & hypnotism
When the Scott James Braid researched animal magnetism he concluded that there is no fluid. Braid finds out that the trance state is caused by suggestion and is related to ordinary sleep. In order to make a differentiation between the animal magnetism and the phenomena that he witnessed, Braid takes as point of departure the name neurypnology and uses the term hypnotism. In July 1842 he writes an article for a meeting of the British Association in Manchester where he uses the name neuro-hypnotism. Contrary to what is believed it is not his book ‘Neurypnology or the rationale of nervous sleep considered in relation with animal magnistism (1843), but his writing from 1842 where Braid used the term ‘hypnotism’ for the first time. Later on Braid uses the term monodeism (1847) and for the word somnambulism he uses the term double consciousness.
In 1892 Sinnett evaluates in his ‘ The Rationale of Mesmerism’ the way in which Braid introduced the term hypnotism. “ Hypnosis is one thing, however mesmerism is quite something else”, he claims. Who talks about hypnosis, is talking about something else than the phenomena of mesmerism. Next to that Sinnet thinks that Braid must realize that he owes a lot to Mesmer, M. Bertrand en Abbé Faria. The use of the term ‘ Braidism’ never got the wide support.
Sommeil lucide (Abbé de Faria (1756-1819))
Although Braid generally is seen as the founder of modern hypnosis, we have to take a look at the activities and general thoughts of Abbé José-Custodio de Faria (1756-1819). During public performances he brought people into trance and gave them post hypnotic commands. He let them do all kinds of tests with taste, scents and visual hallucinations. De Faria does not believe the theories that explain magnetism. He proposes to call somnambulists ‘époptes’ and he calls the magnetic state ‘sommeil lucide’ and furthermore he terms the process of magnetizing ‘concentration’. Therefore the magnetiser is called ‘concentrer’ . By ‘concentrer’ De Faria means as state of consciousness that is focused on the inside, unaware of what the senses observe. With this concept and the great role that suggestion played during these performances, De Faria can be seen as an important precursor to the later school of Nancy.
Psycodunamy (Th. Leger, 1846)
Being ignorant of what Braid was doing in England, almost at the same time, Th. Leger writes his book ‘ Animal magnetism; or psycodunamy’ (1846). Neither he is happy with the term ‘animal magnetism ‘ and he proposes to change that with the word psycodunamy or in short dunamy. “This name is derived from the Greek words spirits/soul” according to Leger and therefore means ‘mental strength ‘. “With the word dunamy belongs the verb to dunamise and the magnetiser is called dunamiser” claims Leger, who stresses that the words ‘ psycodunamy’ exactly defines what it is about, namely that people posses the force to exercise influence on their body using their mind.
Mental or Animal Electricity
Leger also took a look at names that were proposed by others, however according to him none were appropriate. Names were given such as Mental or
Animal Electricity by J.H.D. Petetin (1805) and Dr. Pigeaire (1839). Leger rejects these names for the same reason he rejects animal magnetism. According to him the names animal magnetism and animal electricity are based on the same idea, namely that of the fluid, and he doubts its existence and never saw any material evidence of it. He also rejects the word ‘mesmerism’ that is proposed by Elliotson and Hare Townsend amongst others. According to him this might be the most inaccurate name, because never before in time a science was named after a person and secondly Leger questions the facts if Mesmer has the right to claim this honor, because he is not the inventor of the practical parts of magnetism because they are much older. Neither did Mesmer come up with the proposed theory himself. Next to that it is full of flaws and brings more hinder than progress. Mesmer never talked about the phenomena that are occupying the scientists. In total nothing remained of Mesmer’s teaching, so why should our science call it mesmerism? Leger also does not like the word ‘Neurology’ which was proposed by Dr. Buchanan, because the word is already in existence as the study for the nerve system. Using this name unjustly is asking for trouble.
There is also the term ‘pathetism’ by Laroy Sunderland (18440. He tries to combine the popular ‘frenology’ with magnetism and gives his theory the name ‘phrenomagnetism’. Later on he leaves this thought and writes about magnetism as ‘pathetism’. According to Leger this is also wrong. It is too general to say the least. The Greek origin of the word means ‘illness’ or ‘suffering’ and that is not what is meant with this new science. Next to that there is Prof Grimes who terms the word ‘etherology’. Greek-etymological means treatment with the smallest part of air. Because Leger rejects the existence of fluids, according to him this name has nothing to do with ‘our subject’ .
Electrical psychology (1850)
Leger is not the only one in his criticism on ‘magnetism ‘. Also John Bovee Dods is looking for alternative names and comes with the term ‘ mental electricity’ and even ‘spritualism’ . In his book ‘The Philosphy of Electrical Psychology’ (1850, Crabtree 596) he renounces this again and explains that he has a lot of success with his ‘electrical psychology’. This way of treatment also uses Mesmer’s, however, where magnetism is seen as a teaching of sympathy, his discovery is that it is the teaching of impressions. According to Dods this means that contrary to the magnetised patients, whose senses are bounds to the magnetiser, the patient who is treated with Dods’ ‘Electrical Psychology’ remains completely independent. Braid criticizes this idea. In his book ‘ Electrobiological phenomena considered physiologically and psychologically’ (1851), he let us know that it concerns the same phenomena and that these are all forms of ‘hypnotism’.
Samual Underhill (1868)
After having practiced animal magnetism for 30 years and being the publisher of the first American magazine on magnetism, Samuel Underhill took stock in his book ‘Underhill on Mesmerism’. He too saw different alternatives for the same phenomena. Together with Leger he rejects Sunderland’s ‘Pethetism’, Dr. Braid’s ‘hypnotism’ and Dr Dods’ ‘electrical psychology’.
Frederik van Eeden
All over the world they search for a better name for Mesmer’s teaching and application. Slowly but surely the term hypnosis becomes more important. Thanks to P. de Koningh the term (electro-)biology comes into focus for a short while in the Netherlands. During this time spiritualism emerges. This addresses the old (Mesmerism) magnetism, clairvoyance and other so-called byproducts as an opposite of the upcoming hypnotism. No doubt that this division contributed to a further study of ‘ suggestion hypnosis’. In this light we have to take a look at the publications of Frederik van Eeden. In 1886 he uses ‘hypnotismus’ for the first time in the Netherlands. In December of that year Van Eeden publishes his ‘Hypnotisme en de wonderen (Hypnotism and miracles). In the third print he writes a footnote that says: “ fact is that nowadays all magical phenomena are simply called hypnotic phenomena. Hypnotism is a wrong word that is used generally for many different things that are nowadays better identified. Only suggestion is a well-defined word, hypnosis, ’ uggested sleep’ also (1890). Slowly hypnosis started being used in scientific circles as well as in a lot of literature. After 1910 almost all serious researchers used the term’ hypnosis’.
Baron D’Henin de Cuvillers (1755-1841)
The long road of ‘magnétisme animal’ to ‘hypnosis’ could have been much shorter if there would have been more interests in the long speeches of Baron D’Henin de Cuvillers. Obviously he has a huge problem with the name magnetism, because already in the first issues (1820 and later in 1823) of the magazine ‘Archives du magnetism animal’ he writes extensively about a number of alternatives. He talks about ‘rabdomancie, aimant animal, thaumaturge and psychology. He also discusses in ‘Un fameux magnétiseur’ (De Faria) the proposed term ‘epopte’. However it really gets exciting when de Culvillers brings to the forefront a number of words with the prefix ‘hypno’. He talks about hypnobate (sleep & walk) for somnambulism, hypnoscope (sleepwachting), hypnomancie, hypnology, hypnotique. D’Henin de Cuvillers develops his thoughts about namegiving in his book ‘Le magnetism animal retrouve dans l’antiquite’ (1821). He discusses 312 words with the prefix ‘hypno’ amongst which hypnotique, hypnotiste and hypnotism.
- J.Braid, Neurypnology or the rationale of nervous sleep considered in relation with animal magnetism’ (1843)
- J.H.D.Petetin, Electricité animal, prouvée par la découverte des phénomènes et moraux de la catalepsie hystérique, et de ses variétés ; et par les bons effets de électricité artificielle dans le traitmt de ces maladies.(1805)
- M.A. Gravitz & M.I. Gerton, Origins of the term hypnotism prior to Braid.. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, vol.27, Number 2, October 1984.
- J.Pigeaire, Puissance de l’électricité animale, ou, du magnétisme vital et de ses rapports avec la physique, la physiologie et la médecine.(1839)
- Arend Fokke Simonsz in 1808,(1) (Doctor Gall en Doctor Faust of de Groote omwenteling op aarde.
- 1784 Franklin rapport: magnétisme animal
- 1791 ,, vertaling door H.A.Bake die bekendmaakte dit te doen als waarschuwing tegen het: Dierlijk magnetismus
- 1791 F. van Voltelen de magnetismo animali door J.Veirac, ook een tegenstander vertaald in: Dierlijk magnetismus
- 1791 De eerste aantekeningen van G.K.van Hogendorp schrijft ‘Magnetisme’.
- 1791 In een berichtje schrijft de Algemeene Konst- en Letterbode over de ‘Mesmeriaansche betasting.”
- 1792 Een reactie op de redevoeing van v. Voltelen schrijft over ‘dierlijk magnetisme.’
- 1813 H.Wolthers; P.Hendriksz; C.de Waal & G.Bakker spreken van ‘animalisch magnetismus’
- 1814 H.Wolthers; P.Hendriksz; C.de Waal & G.Bakker spreken van ‘animalisch magnetismus’
- 1814 Fokke Simonsz: magnetische slaap en dierlijk magnetismus
- 1814 A.Beeler schrijft over ‘dierlijk magnetismus’.
- 1815/1833 : Bilderdijk / I. da Costa : dierlijk magnetismus
- 1816 NN De geheimen der magnetiseurs en somnambules ontmaskerd voor weldenkende en deugdgezinde menschen
- 1816 De dankbare dominee A.N. van Pelecom draagt een gedicht voor aan zijn behandelaar a.Beeler: uiteraard over het ‘Magnetismus’.
- 1816 v.d. Held spreekt van ‘animalisch magnetismus’
- 1817 C.W.Hufeland: dierlijk magnetismus
- 1818 De vertaling van Deleuze’s ‘Magnétisme animal’ wordt ‘dierlijk magnetisme’.
- 1818 Vertaling van de Puysegurs’boek: dierlijk magnetismus
- 1819 H.Wolthers; P.Hendriksz; C.de Waal & G.Bakker spreken van ‘animalisch magnetismus’
- I1823 I.da Costa: het Magnetismus
- 1823 H. Wolthers; P.Hendriksz; C.de Waal & G.Bakker spreken van ‘animalisch magnetismus’
- 1828 J.A. Uilkens Dierlijk magnetismus
- 1828 J.P.F. Deleuze boek wordt vertaald naar ‘Practisch onderrigt nopens het dierlijk magnetismus’. (Met een voorwoord van B.J.Meyer): dierlijk magnetismus
- C.F,. v.d. Breggen Dierlijk magnetismus
- 1829 P.J.van Wageningen: Magnetische somnambulisme
- 1829 B.J.Meijer: dierlijk magnetismus en somnambulismus
- 1845 Ennemoser in vertaling: Het Magnetismus in verband met natuur en godsdienst
- 1851 (G. Gregory: Letters on animal magnetism wordt door e van Calcar vertaald in: Levensmagnetismus
- 1855 Dr. Duparc (in Onze Tijd) De electro-biologie, het somnambulisme, Mesmerisme en odylisme
- 1886 F.van Eeden: Hypnotisme en de wonderen
- 1888 F. van Eeden: De psychische geneeswijze
- 1889 Van Renterghem & van Eeden: (clinique de ) psychothérapie suggestive
- 1889 I.A.Hofelt: het hypnotisme in verband met het strafrecht.
- 1889 J. Kerlen hypnotisme
- 1890 J. Kerlen : hypnotisme
- 1891 van Renterghem: Hypnotisme, Suggestie Psychotherapie (Conform het origineel van Bernheim door v.Renterghem
- 1891 A.J. Riko: Handboek ter beoefening van het magnetisme, het hypnotisme, de suggestie biologie en aanverwante vakken..
- 1893 A.J. Riko in Spinx: over magnetisme en over de hypnotiseur A. de Jong
- 1894 F. van Eeden: Algemene therapie
- 1894 van Renterghem: Psychotherapie (In Zeitschrift für Hypnotismus)
- 1898 van Renterghem: spontane somnambulismus
- 1898 van Renterghem : Liébeault en zijne school
- 1899 Reeling Brouwer: (In de psychiatrische en Neurologische bladenJ Psychologie van den suggestieve slaap
- 1899 Bierens de Haan: Het vraagstuk der beteekenis van hypnose en suggestie voor de opvoeding
- 1900 Reeling Brouwer: de psychische geneeswijze
- 1900: D. Stigter: de suggestie in de hypnose als geneesmiddel
- 1900 Wijnaendts Francken (In boek Psychologische omtrekken) hypnose en suggestie
- 1902 Wijnaendts Franken: het Hypnotisme
- 1903 van Renterghem: Hypnose en suggestie als hulpmiddelen bij de opvoeding van kinderen
- 1904 van Renterghem: Kort begrip der psychische geneeswijze
- 1904 A.Aletrino: Hypnose
- 1904 Hudson
- 1907 A.W. van Renterghem: La psychothérapie (dans ses differents modes)
- 1908 Renterghem & A.C.A. Hoffman: psychotherapie
- 1908 Pro & Contra Van Renterghem en A.C.A. Hoffman: Hypnotisme
- 1909 W.Q. Judge: Het hypnotisme en zijne gevaren
- 1911 W. Hilger /vertaald door van der Chijs /van Renterghem: Hypnose en de suggestie
- 1922 L.Deutmann : Magnetisme en occultisme
- 1926 S.Koster: Hypnose
©Johan Eland / Antiquariaat Lilith
Edited by Brenda Vader/Translation Ina Oostrom
./. Publication in part or total is allowed with a source link. All rights reserved.